to their will the bishops in their kingdoms, and thus

secure enough priestly magic to save themselves from damnation. Church discipline and a

unified ecclesiastical government were therefore essential to the power of the clergy,hollister. These

ends were secured during the eleventh century, as part and parcel of a moral reformation of the


The power of the clergy as a whole could only be secured by very considerable sacrifices on the

part of individual ecclesiastics. The two great evils against which all clerical reformers directed

their energies were simony and concubinage. Something must be said about each of these.

Owing to the benefactions of the pious,hollister sale, the Church had become rich. Many bishops had huge

estates, and even parish priests had, as a rule, what for those times was a comfortable living,abercrombie online shop.

———————– Page 274———————–

The appointment of bishops was usually, in practice, in the hands of the king,abercrombie, but sometimes in

those of some subordinate feudal noble,louboutin. It was customary for the king to sell bishoprics; this,abercrombie, in

fact, provided a substantial part of his income. The bishop, in turn, sold such ecclesiastical

preferment as was in his power. There was no secret about this. Gerbert (Sylvester II)

represented bishops as saying: “I gave gold and I received the episcopate; but yet I do not fear to

receive it back if I behave as I should. I ordain a priest and I receive gold; I make a deacon and I

receive a heap of silver. Behold the gold which I gave I have once more unlessened in my

purse,coach outlet online.” * Peter Damian in Milan, in 1059, found that every cleric in the city, from the

archbishop downwards, had been guilty of simony. And this state of affairs was in no way


Simony, of course, was a sin,abercrombie, but that was not the only objection to it,coach outlet. It caused ecclesiastical

preferment to go by wealth, not merit; it confirmed lay authority in the appointment of bishops,

and episcopal subservience to secular rulers,abercrombie uk; and it tended to make the episcopate part of the

feudal system. Moreover, when a man had purchased preferment,hollister france, he was naturally anxious to

recoup himself, so that worldly rather than spiritual concerns were likely to preoccupy


* Cambridge Medieval History, V, Ch. 10.


him. For these reasons, the campaign against simony was a necessary part of the ecclesiastical

struggle for power.

Very similar considerations applied to clerical celibacy,abercrombie milano. The reformers of the eleventh century

often spoke of “concubinage” when it would have been more accurate to speak of “marriage.”

Monks, of course, were precluded from marriage by their vow of chastity, but there had been no

clear prohibition of marriage for the secular clergy. In the Eastern Church, to this day,hollister, parish

priests are allowed to be married. In the West, in the eleventh century, most parish priests were

married,hollister milano. Bishops, for their part, appealed to Saint Paul’s pronouncement: “A bishop then must

be blameless, the husband of one wife,abercrombie.” * There was not the same
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